Oman is located on the southwestern part of the Arab peninsula, between latitudes 40 o, 16 o, 20 o and 26 o North, and50 o, 51 o, 40 o and 59 o East and overlooks a coastline extending for more than 3,165 km from the Arabian Sea from the southeast and the Indian Ocean, all the way to the Gulf of Oman, ending at Musandam to the north, overlooking the strategic Strait of Hurmuz and the entrance to the Arabian Gulf. It is bordered by Yemen from the southwest, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to the west and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to the north, with a number of small islands in the Gulf of Oman and the Strait of Hurmuz, including Salama wa banatiha, and in the Arabia Sea like Masira and Hallaniyat. Oman extends over an area of approx. 309,500 km2.
The topography of Oman features the Hijir Mountain chain, extending from the top of the mountains in Musandam (the Strait of Hurmuz and the gate to the Arabian Gulf) to Ras El Hadd, the furthest southeastern point on the Arabian Peninsula towards the Indian Ocean, forming a large arc from the northeastern part of Oman all the way to the Southwestern part, with the highest point at 3000 meters above sea level on top of El Jebel El Akhdar (the Green Mountain).
In Musandam, the mountains rise up to 1,800 meters above sea level, and Ras Musandam has gained the reputation of being the Tropical Norway, thanks to the numerous marine alleys between the rocks and winding access routes. The Straut of Hurmuz is located between the Omani and Iranian coasts, with the navigable part on the Omani side. The highest mountaintop in the Hijir Mountain chain in Al Dakhliya Governorate is Jebel Shams (the Sun Mountain) at 3,000 meters above sea level.
The Omani coastline on the Arabian Sea extends to more than 560 km, out of which 130 km are covered by the monsoon rains, and includes a coastal plain eight to ten kilometers wide, where various cities are located including Salalah, Mirbat, Sadah, Rakhyut and Dhalkut. The coastline of Dhofar is rich in fisheries, and abundant with sardines, with the excess quantities of sardine is used as fertilizer and cattle feed.
The Dhofar Mountains extend in a continuous chain from the north to the west, over more than 400 km opposite El Halaniat islands, all the way to the border with Yemen, most famous is Jebel Samhan to the east, and Jebel Al Kamar (the Moon Mountain) to the west. The width of the mountain chain is not more than 23 kilometers, and the highest peak is 2,500 meters above sea level. 75 km of the mountains are covered by green layer starting from June to September every year – the Khareef Season – distinguishing this area from the rest of the Arab peninsula with monsoon winds coming from southwest during the Khareef Season, transforming Dhofar into an attractive summer retreat thanks to the gentle rains and green pastures. Dhofar is also famous for its frankincense trade throughout the history, which was the source of its wealth in ancient time, in addition to the water springs flowing throughout the year.